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Applications of SCADA

SCADA is widely used in different areas from chemical, gas, water, communications and power systems. The list of applications of SCADA can be listed as follows.

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1. Electric power generation, transmission and distribution: Electric utilities use SCADA systems to detect current flow and line voltage, to monitor the operation of circuit breakers, and to take sections of the power grid online or offline.
2. Water, Waste Water Utilities and Sewage: State and municipal water utilities use SCADA to monitor and regulate water flow, reservoir levels, pipe pressure and other factors.
3. Buildings, facilities and environments: Facility managers use SCADA to control HVAC, refrigeration units, lighting and entry systems.
4. Oil and Gas Trans & Distributions:
5. Wind Power Generation
6. Communication Networks:
7. Industrial Plans and Process Control:
8. Manufacturing: SCADA systems manage parts inventories for just-in-time manufacturing, regulate industrial automation and robots, and monitor process and quality control.
9. Mass transit and Railway Traction: Transit authorities use SCADA to regulate electricity to subways, trams and trolley buses; to automate traffic signals for rail systems; to track and locate trains and buses; and to control railroad crossing gates.
10. Traffic signals: SCADA regulates traffic lights, controls traffic flow and detects out-of-order signals.

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SCADA in Power Systems:
SCADA is widely used in power systems. The applications for SCADA keep increasing day after day. Some of the applications are:

Comprehensive operational planning and control
Fuel resource scheduling
Optimum power flow
Network security
Economic dispatch
Generation dispatch control

Expected Benefits of SCADA for Power Systems:

Improved quality of service
Improved reliability
Reduced operating costs
Maintenance /Expansion of customer base
Ability to defer capacity addition projects
High value service providers
Improved information for engineering decision
value added services
Flexible billing option
Improved customer information access
Reduced system implementation costs
Reduced manpower requirements

Typical features of a substation SCADA system are as under Substation parameter monitoring:

Controlling electrical network components remotely
Safety tagging
High resolution time stamping
Sequence of event reporting for post event analysis
Additional features of substation control system
Demand side management
Volt/VAR control
Preventive maintenance
Fault detection isolation and restoration

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SCADA for Power Utility Network:

The aim of power network utilities(PNU) software is to provide the electrical utility with tools which will enhance the operation of the system in a very cost effective way.in the present scenario of low budgets for power utilities to produce and distribute quality power at the minimum cost.This goal can be achieved by proper operation of the electrical network and at the same time having real time data about state of the network.This real time data can then be used for supervisory controlled changes of
the network parameters with effective guidance from distribution automation tools.The PNU software utilizes the real time SCADA data.the real time network topology network component details & user defined strategies to achieve the above mentioned goals.PNU uses a combination of mathematical and logical techniques to provide the user with a host of applications for the purpose of distribution automation.

Features of Power Network Utilities:
Component Modeling
State Estimation
Bad data suppression
Contingency analysis
Fault isolation/islanding
Load shedding
Volt/Var scheduling
Dispatcher power flow
Short circuit analysis
Network topology processor

Objectives:
There are many objectives of SCADA System.
1. Improved overall System efficiency (capital & energy)
2. Increased penetration energy sources including renewable energy sources.
3. Reduced Energy Requirements in both the Transmission and Generation
4. Increased Relativity of sequence to essential loads.

Components of SCADA:

There are many parts or components of a SCADA system, which include hardware (input and output), controllers, networks, user interface, communications equipment and software. All together, the term SCADA refers to the entire central system. The central system usually monitors data from various sensors that are either in close proximity or off site (sometimes miles away).

An industrial SCADA consisting of the following
1) a central host or master station unit or, master terminal unit (MTU);
2) one or more field data gathering and control units or remotes (usually called remote stations, remote terminal units, or RTU’s);
3) a collection of standard and/or custom software used to monitor and control remotely located field data elements.

Contemporary SCADA systems exhibit predominantly open-loop control characteristics and utilize predominantly long distance communications, although some elements of closed-loop control and/or short distance communications may also be present.
Major components of SCADA:

1) A collection of equipments that is provide the operator at remote location with enough
information to determine the status of particular piece of equipment or entire substation or a plant or a dynamic network and cause actions to take place regarding that equipment or network without being physically present.
2) An arrangement for operator control and separation of remotely located apparatus using multiplexing techniques once a relatively small number of interconnecting channels.
3) Collecting Data from remote electrical equipment and controlling then through suitable communication medium.

Functions of SCADA:
A SCADA system performs four functions:
1. Data acquisition
2. Networked data communication
3. Data presentation
4. Control
These functions are performed by four kinds of SCADA components:
1. Sensors (either digital or analog) and control relays that directly interface with the managed system.
2. Remote telemetry units (RTUs). These are small computerized units deployed in the field at specific sites and locations. RTUs serve as local collection points for gathering reports from sensors and delivering commands to control relays.
3. SCADA master units. These are larger computer consoles that serve as the central processor for the SCADA system. Master units provide a human interface to the system and automatically regulate the managed system in response to sensor inputs.
4. The communications network that connects the SCADA master unit to the RTUs in the field.

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